Just recently I ran into a problem at a customer that runs ConfigMgr 2012 SP1 (no CU).
The problem was that after OSD completes the agent recievs all the policies, but after a few minutes they are gone again.. Leaving the client with only Machine policy and User policy actions.
By waiting (45-60 min) usually makes the policies come back again.
Found this forum thread (even though we are not using HTTPS):
The resolution for me was:
1. Either delete the ConfigMgr object and re-create it prior to deploying the operating system to it.
2. Or add the following run-command line at the end of the task sequence (as suggested in the thread)
cmd /c reg add HKLM\Software\Microsoft\CCM /v
"UserPolicyReRequestDelay" /t REG_DWORD /d "6000000" /f